A daring though sometimes tangled argument for using genetics to mend the consequences of inequality.



Behavioral geneticist Harden considers the luck of the draw involved with DNA.

Harden, a professor of psychology at the University of Texas, treads a veritable minefield by venturing into a field whose discourse has been dominated by eugenics and White supremacists. Nature doles out genetic advantages, which can be measured by a weighted “polygenic” score. Those with higher scores usual experience better results in life: health, higher levels of satisfaction, and substantially higher lifetime earnings. “You didn’t get to pick your parents,” writes the author, “and that applies just as much to what they bequeathed you genetically as what they bequeathed you environmentally.” Having that polygenic array is akin to winning the lottery, just as having biological parents at home who read aloud and otherwise nurture curiosity and learning builds on that luck. Drawing on twin studies, Harden examines differences within families and within populations, skirting the unhappy reality that most genetics research, as she acknowledges, “does not just disproportionately study White people. It also is disproportionately conducted by White people.” In other words, we need broader data to disprove the notion that one race—a meaningless concept in biology—is superior to another. Working her way through some difficult science in a somewhat repetitive explication, Harden proposes that identifying the lottery winners is one thing. What remains is to put this body of scientific study to work to mitigate the less desirable effects of the social inequalities that result when one segment of the population has better access to wealth than others. As she notes, “the heritability of child cognitive ability is lowestfor children raised in poverty and highest for children from rich homes.” It’s a discussion fraught with political as much as scientific considerations, and Harden diligently fights a desperate battle to enlist science to serve progressive social reform.

A daring though sometimes tangled argument for using genetics to mend the consequences of inequality.

Pub Date: Sept. 21, 2021

ISBN: 978-0-691-19080-8

Page Count: 312

Publisher: Princeton Univ.

Review Posted Online: Sept. 17, 2021

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A quirky wonder of a book.



A Peabody Award–winning NPR science reporter chronicles the life of a turn-of-the-century scientist and how her quest led to significant revelations about the meaning of order, chaos, and her own existence.

Miller began doing research on David Starr Jordan (1851-1931) to understand how he had managed to carry on after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake destroyed his work. A taxonomist who is credited with discovering “a full fifth of fish known to man in his day,” Jordan had amassed an unparalleled collection of ichthyological specimens. Gathering up all the fish he could save, Jordan sewed the nameplates that had been on the destroyed jars directly onto the fish. His perseverance intrigued the author, who also discusses the struggles she underwent after her affair with a woman ended a heterosexual relationship. Born into an upstate New York farm family, Jordan attended Cornell and then became an itinerant scholar and field researcher until he landed at Indiana University, where his first ichthyological collection was destroyed by lightning. In between this catastrophe and others involving family members’ deaths, he reconstructed his collection. Later, he was appointed as the founding president of Stanford, where he evolved into a Machiavellian figure who trampled on colleagues and sang the praises of eugenics. Miller concludes that Jordan displayed the characteristics of someone who relied on “positive illusions” to rebound from disaster and that his stand on eugenics came from a belief in “a divine hierarchy from bacteria to humans that point[ed]…toward better.” Considering recent research that negates biological hierarchies, the author then suggests that Jordan’s beloved taxonomic category—fish—does not exist. Part biography, part science report, and part meditation on how the chaos that caused Miller’s existential misery could also bring self-acceptance and a loving wife, this unique book is an ingenious celebration of diversity and the mysterious order that underlies all existence.

A quirky wonder of a book.

Pub Date: April 14, 2020

ISBN: 978-1-5011-6027-1

Page Count: 224

Publisher: Simon & Schuster

Review Posted Online: Jan. 2, 2020

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Feb. 1, 2020

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A solid foundational education in a handful of lively scientific topics.


Two science podcasters answer their mail.

In this illustrated follow-up to We Have No Idea: A Guide to the Unknown Universe (2017), Cham, a cartoonist and former research associate and instructor at Caltech, and Whiteson, professor of physics and astronomy at the University of California, Irvine, explain the basic science behind subjects that seem to preoccupy the listeners of their podcast, Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe. Most of the questions involve physics or astrophysics and take the form of, is such-and-such possible?—e.g., teleportation, alien visitors, building a warp drive, entering a black hole). The authors emphasize that they are answering as scientists, not engineers. “A physicist will say something is possible if they don’t know of a law of physics that prevents it.” Thus, a spaceship traveling fast enough to reach the nearest star in a reasonable amount of time is not forbidden by the laws of physics, but building one is inconceivable. Similarly, wormholes and time travel are “not known to be impossible”—as are many other scenarios. Some distressing events are guaranteed. An asteroid will strike the Earth, the sun will explode, and the human race will become extinct, but studies reveal that none are immediate threats. Sadly, making Mars as habitable as Earth is possible but only with improbably futuristic technology. For those who suspect that we are living in a computer simulation, the authors describe what clues to look for. Readers may worry that the authors step beyond their expertise when they include chapters on the existence of an afterlife or the question of free will. Sticking closely to hard science, they deliver a lucid overview of brain function and the debate over the existence of alternate universes that is unlikely to provoke controversy. The authors’ work fits neatly into the recently burgeoning market of breezy pop-science books full of jokes, asides, and cartoons that serve as introductions to concepts that require much further study to fully understand.

A solid foundational education in a handful of lively scientific topics.

Pub Date: Nov. 2, 2021

ISBN: 978-0-593-18931-3

Page Count: 336

Publisher: Riverhead

Review Posted Online: Sept. 7, 2021

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Oct. 1, 2021

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