In 1971, McIntosh County, N.C., was a tiny hamlet of 1800 souls—half of them black—that the civil-rights movement, played out in cities, had passed by: a hard-scrabble setting for Greene's powerful book debut. Greene describes the black community—so isolated that they spoke Gullah—as having no plumbing, telephones, hot water, paved roads, electricity, gas heat, or air conditioning. Presiding over all of this in benevolent despotism was High Sheriff Tom Poppel (who inherited the job from his father, Ad). He tossed blacks a carrot by allowing them to carry off the contents of tractor- trailers in wrecks, and got out his stick in refusing to help them with store credit or food from local stores during the disastrously wet year of 1953. ``One way you can control Negroes is to keep them hungry,'' he was heard to say. Poppel also controlled the northern end of McIntosh; there, around his flagship business, the S&S truck stop, were narcotics, counterfeiting, fencing, and white-slavery operations. When Poppel decided civil rights was an idea whose time had come, he conceived a community organization, named it (McIntosh County Civic League) and its goals (to have a black man seated on the county commissions), and had his candidate (a frail 78-year-old man) elected. Poppel then applied for federal revenue-sharing monies and made out handsomely. Days of reckoning came shortly when one of Poppel's deputies, for no apparent reason other than annoyance at hearing loud banter, told a man to shut up, then shot him in the jaw and threw him in lockup without medical attention. In one day, the black community evolved from Gandhi to King to Huey P. Newton when two hundred men with guns marched into city hall. In this confrontation and the many subsequent lies Greene's tale. Perhaps too discursive for some, with scenes of evocation before and after every piece of action; still, a beautifully written and absolutely authentic picture of the rural South.

Pub Date: Oct. 3, 1991

ISBN: 0-201-55048-2

Page Count: 416

Publisher: Addison-Wesley

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Aug. 15, 1991

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Not an easy read but an essential one.

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Title notwithstanding, this latest from the National Book Award–winning author is no guidebook to getting woke.

In fact, the word “woke” appears nowhere within its pages. Rather, it is a combination memoir and extension of Atlantic columnist Kendi’s towering Stamped From the Beginning (2016) that leads readers through a taxonomy of racist thought to anti-racist action. Never wavering from the thesis introduced in his previous book, that “racism is a powerful collection of racist policies that lead to racial inequity and are substantiated by racist ideas,” the author posits a seemingly simple binary: “Antiracism is a powerful collection of antiracist policies that lead to racial equity and are substantiated by antiracist ideas.” The author, founding director of American University’s Antiracist Research and Policy Center, chronicles how he grew from a childhood steeped in black liberation Christianity to his doctoral studies, identifying and dispelling the layers of racist thought under which he had operated. “Internalized racism,” he writes, “is the real Black on Black Crime.” Kendi methodically examines racism through numerous lenses: power, biology, ethnicity, body, culture, and so forth, all the way to the intersectional constructs of gender racism and queer racism (the only section of the book that feels rushed). Each chapter examines one facet of racism, the authorial camera alternately zooming in on an episode from Kendi’s life that exemplifies it—e.g., as a teen, he wore light-colored contact lenses, wanting “to be Black but…not…to look Black”—and then panning to the history that informs it (the antebellum hierarchy that valued light skin over dark). The author then reframes those received ideas with inexorable logic: “Either racist policy or Black inferiority explains why White people are wealthier, healthier, and more powerful than Black people today.” If Kendi is justifiably hard on America, he’s just as hard on himself. When he began college, “anti-Black racist ideas covered my freshman eyes like my orange contacts.” This unsparing honesty helps readers, both white and people of color, navigate this difficult intellectual territory.

Not an easy read but an essential one.

Pub Date: Aug. 13, 2019

ISBN: 978-0-525-50928-8

Page Count: 320

Publisher: One World/Random House

Review Posted Online: April 28, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: May 15, 2019

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For Howard Zinn, long-time civil rights and anti-war activist, history and ideology have a lot in common. Since he thinks that everything is in someone's interest, the historian—Zinn posits—has to figure out whose interests he or she is defining/defending/reconstructing (hence one of his previous books, The Politics of History). Zinn has no doubts about where he stands in this "people's history": "it is a history disrespectful of governments and respectful of people's movements of resistance." So what we get here, instead of the usual survey of wars, presidents, and institutions, is a survey of the usual rebellions, strikes, and protest movements. Zinn starts out by depicting the arrival of Columbus in North America from the standpoint of the Indians (which amounts to their standpoint as constructed from the observations of the Europeans); and, after easily establishing the cultural disharmony that ensued, he goes on to the importation of slaves into the colonies. Add the laborers and indentured servants that followed, plus women and later immigrants, and you have Zinn's amorphous constituency. To hear Zinn tell it, all anyone did in America at any time was to oppress or be oppressed; and so he obscures as much as his hated mainstream historical foes do—only in Zinn's case there is that absurd presumption that virtually everything that came to pass was the work of ruling-class planning: this amounts to one great indictment for conspiracy. Despite surface similarities, this is not a social history, since we get no sense of the fabric of life. Instead of negating the one-sided histories he detests, Zinn has merely reversed the image; the distortion remains.

Pub Date: Jan. 1, 1979

ISBN: 0061965588

Page Count: 772

Publisher: Harper & Row

Review Posted Online: May 26, 2012

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Jan. 1, 1979

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