A compellingly readable tale of identity formation.

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ACCIDENTAL BROTHERS

THE STORY OF TWINS EXCHANGED AT BIRTH AND THE POWER OF NATURE AND NURTURE

The story of a baby-switching case that involved two children who were part of two different sets of identical twins.

In December 1988, two women gave premature birth to two pairs of identical twin sons at a Bogotá hospital. One woman came from La Paz, a rural municipality several hours outside the capital; the other came from Bogotá itself. Hospital conditions were chaotic. Nurses often put premature babies together on a single table and used easily removed tags to identify the children. When the women and their sons were finally reunited, each had a boy that belonged to the other. Using information gathered from extensive interviews, Segal (Psychology/California State Univ., Fullerton) and Montoya describe the serendipitous events that led to the reunion of the brothers separated at birth and the effects that reunion had on both families. “Accidental brothers” William and Wilbur grew up in La Paz while their blood brothers Jorge and Carlos grew up in Bogotá. Both mothers accepted the accidental brother in each set as family despite obvious differences in skin color, general appearance, and temperament. Where the La Paz brothers had limited access to education and advancement opportunities, the Bogotá brothers were able to attend college and pursue careers. Drawing on twin study research as well as their own experiences with the brothers, the authors reveal the fascinating dynamics that emerged once each set of identical twins was reunited. Though the revelation shocked everyone, despite individual differences in personality and background, the rapport each true brother had with the other after 25 years of separation was undeniable. Yet the ties developed over more than two decades with other members of each respective family were also profound and remained strong even after the reunion. In exploring the impact that random events can have on personality formation and life chances, this study of the role nature and nurture play in upbringing sheds illuminating light on the meaning of family.

A compellingly readable tale of identity formation.

Pub Date: April 17, 2018

ISBN: 978-1-250-10190-7

Page Count: 352

Publisher: St. Martin's

Review Posted Online: Feb. 6, 2018

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Feb. 15, 2018

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If the authors are serious, this is a silly, distasteful book. If they are not, it’s a brilliant satire.

THE 48 LAWS OF POWER

The authors have created a sort of anti-Book of Virtues in this encyclopedic compendium of the ways and means of power.

Everyone wants power and everyone is in a constant duplicitous game to gain more power at the expense of others, according to Greene, a screenwriter and former editor at Esquire (Elffers, a book packager, designed the volume, with its attractive marginalia). We live today as courtiers once did in royal courts: we must appear civil while attempting to crush all those around us. This power game can be played well or poorly, and in these 48 laws culled from the history and wisdom of the world’s greatest power players are the rules that must be followed to win. These laws boil down to being as ruthless, selfish, manipulative, and deceitful as possible. Each law, however, gets its own chapter: “Conceal Your Intentions,” “Always Say Less Than Necessary,” “Pose as a Friend, Work as a Spy,” and so on. Each chapter is conveniently broken down into sections on what happened to those who transgressed or observed the particular law, the key elements in this law, and ways to defensively reverse this law when it’s used against you. Quotations in the margins amplify the lesson being taught. While compelling in the way an auto accident might be, the book is simply nonsense. Rules often contradict each other. We are told, for instance, to “be conspicuous at all cost,” then told to “behave like others.” More seriously, Greene never really defines “power,” and he merely asserts, rather than offers evidence for, the Hobbesian world of all against all in which he insists we live. The world may be like this at times, but often it isn’t. To ask why this is so would be a far more useful project.

If the authors are serious, this is a silly, distasteful book. If they are not, it’s a brilliant satire.

Pub Date: Sept. 1, 1998

ISBN: 0-670-88146-5

Page Count: 430

Publisher: Viking

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: July 15, 1998

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Striking research showing the immense complexity of ordinary thought and revealing the identities of the gatekeepers in our...

THINKING, FAST AND SLOW

A psychologist and Nobel Prize winner summarizes and synthesizes the recent decades of research on intuition and systematic thinking.

The author of several scholarly texts, Kahneman (Emeritus Psychology and Public Affairs/Princeton Univ.) now offers general readers not just the findings of psychological research but also a better understanding of how research questions arise and how scholars systematically frame and answer them. He begins with the distinction between System 1 and System 2 mental operations, the former referring to quick, automatic thought, the latter to more effortful, overt thinking. We rely heavily, writes, on System 1, resorting to the higher-energy System 2 only when we need or want to. Kahneman continually refers to System 2 as “lazy”: We don’t want to think rigorously about something. The author then explores the nuances of our two-system minds, showing how they perform in various situations. Psychological experiments have repeatedly revealed that our intuitions are generally wrong, that our assessments are based on biases and that our System 1 hates doubt and despises ambiguity. Kahneman largely avoids jargon; when he does use some (“heuristics,” for example), he argues that such terms really ought to join our everyday vocabulary. He reviews many fundamental concepts in psychology and statistics (regression to the mean, the narrative fallacy, the optimistic bias), showing how they relate to his overall concerns about how we think and why we make the decisions that we do. Some of the later chapters (dealing with risk-taking and statistics and probabilities) are denser than others (some readers may resent such demands on System 2!), but the passages that deal with the economic and political implications of the research are gripping.

Striking research showing the immense complexity of ordinary thought and revealing the identities of the gatekeepers in our minds.

Pub Date: Nov. 1, 2011

ISBN: 978-0-374-27563-1

Page Count: 512

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

Review Posted Online: Sept. 4, 2011

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Sept. 15, 2011

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