GLASS

FROM THE FIRST MIRROR TO FIBER OPTICS, THE STORY OF THE SUBSTANCE THAT CHANGED THE WORLD

Glass, like the articles Ellis has written for National Geographic, contains his reflections on a wonderful journey. The book evolved from his most famous article about the ubiquitous but disregarded substance that has advanced our civilization with everything from high-rise buildings to fiber optics. Ellis’s research took him around the world to discover the technological, aesthetic, and historical dimensions of his subject. In Mesopotamia (modem-day Iraq and Syria), glass was accidentally discovered by sailors cooking on the beaches some 2,250 years ago. In this ancient setting now stand the modem computerized crystal factories of Waterford. Arabs, Mongols, and Crusaders were dazzled by the beauty and utility of glassware. Possessing glass objects reflected wealth and status. The movement in glass making, however, was toward Europe, where Persian and Egyptian master craftsmen came to exhibit their skills. During the Middle Ages the world center of glass-making shifted to the island of Murano, where Venetian craftsmen formed a union whose penalty for desertion was death. Contemporary artists’ glass creations command exorbitant prices. From elegant, pristine Steuben crystal to magnificent Tiffany lamps, artwork in glass rivals more highbrow art media. But the most impressive progress is in science and technology. It is impossible to imagine cars without windshields or houses without light bulbs (1.8 billion manufactured annually in the US alone). Once a fragile substance, glass can be made heat-resistant, shatterproof, even bulletproof, without sacrificing visibility. Airplane windshields withstand tremendous air pressure. Glass is used to trap radioactive waste. Radioactive glasses cure cancer. We see ourselves with mirrors and view our world more effectively with eyeglasses, telescopes, microscopes, and now fiber optics. One mile of glass fiber optics weighs only four ounces, with 25,000 times the capacity to carry information as a mile of copper wire weighing 30tons. Ellis breathes life into his technical subject. With an eloquent storyteller’s charm, he chronicles the love affair between our civilization and increasingly versatile glass.

Pub Date: Nov. 1, 1998

ISBN: 0-380-97464-9

Page Count: 304

Publisher: Avon/HarperCollins

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Nov. 1, 1998

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Ackerman writes with a light but assured touch, her prose rich in fact but economical in delivering it. Fans of birds in all...

THE GENIUS OF BIRDS

Science writer Ackerman (Ah-Choo!: The Uncommon Life of Your Common Cold, 2010, etc.) looks at the new science surrounding avian intelligence.

The takeaway: calling someone a birdbrain is a compliment. And in any event, as Ackerman observes early on, “intelligence is a slippery concept, even in our own species, tricky to define and tricky to measure.” Is a bird that uses a rock to break open a clamshell the mental equivalent of a tool-using primate? Perhaps that’s the wrong question, for birds are so unlike humans that “it’s difficult for us to fully appreciate their mental capabilities,” given that they’re really just small, feathered dinosaurs who inhabit a wholly different world from our once-arboreal and now terrestrial one. Crows and other corvids have gotten all the good publicity related to bird intelligence in recent years, but Ackerman, who does allow that some birds are brighter than others, points favorably to the much-despised pigeon as an animal that “can remember hundreds of different objects for long periods of time, discriminate between different painting styles, and figure out where it’s going, even when displaced from familiar territory by hundreds of miles.” Not bad for a critter best known for bespattering statues in public parks. Ackerman travels far afield to places such as Barbados and New Caledonia to study such matters as memory, communication, and decision-making, the last largely based on visual cues—though, as she notes, birds also draw ably on other senses, including smell, which in turn opens up insight onto “a weird evolutionary paradox that scientists have puzzled over for more than a decade”—a matter of the geometry of, yes, the bird brain.

Ackerman writes with a light but assured touch, her prose rich in fact but economical in delivering it. Fans of birds in all their diversity will want to read this one.

Pub Date: April 12, 2016

ISBN: 978-1-59420-521-7

Page Count: 336

Publisher: Penguin Press

Review Posted Online: Feb. 17, 2016

Kirkus Reviews Issue: March 1, 2016

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Loads of good explaining, with reminders, time and again, of how much remains unknown, neatly putting the death of science...

A SHORT HISTORY OF NEARLY EVERYTHING

Bryson (I'm a Stranger Here Myself, 1999, etc.), a man who knows how to track down an explanation and make it confess, asks the hard questions of science—e.g., how did things get to be the way they are?—and, when possible, provides answers.

As he once went about making English intelligible, Bryson now attempts the same with the great moments of science, both the ideas themselves and their genesis, to resounding success. Piqued by his own ignorance on these matters, he’s egged on even more so by the people who’ve figured out—or think they’ve figured out—such things as what is in the center of the Earth. So he goes exploring, in the library and in company with scientists at work today, to get a grip on a range of topics from subatomic particles to cosmology. The aim is to deliver reports on these subjects in terms anyone can understand, and for the most part, it works. The most difficult is the nonintuitive material—time as part of space, say, or proteins inventing themselves spontaneously, without direction—and the quantum leaps unusual minds have made: as J.B.S. Haldane once put it, “The universe is not only queerer than we suppose; it is queerer than we can suppose.” Mostly, though, Bryson renders clear the evolution of continental drift, atomic structure, singularity, the extinction of the dinosaur, and a mighty host of other subjects in self-contained chapters that can be taken at a bite, rather than read wholesale. He delivers the human-interest angle on the scientists, and he keeps the reader laughing and willing to forge ahead, even over their heads: the human body, for instance, harboring enough energy “to explode with the force of thirty very large hydrogen bombs, assuming you knew how to liberate it and really wished to make a point.”

Loads of good explaining, with reminders, time and again, of how much remains unknown, neatly putting the death of science into perspective.

Pub Date: May 6, 2003

ISBN: 0-7679-0817-1

Page Count: 304

Publisher: Broadway

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: April 1, 2003

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