THE SOCIAL LEAP

THE NEW EVOLUTIONARY SCIENCE OF WHO WE ARE, WHERE WE COME FROM, AND WHAT MAKES US HAPPY

Full of insight into human character, von Hippel’s book provides a stimulating program for measuring success without...

Forget gold toilets and private jets. The key to happiness may just lie in a cheeseburger—or a sandbox.

Want to be happy? Hang out with your friends. Do something good for the people around you. Learn something new. By von Hippel’s (Psychology/Univ. of Queensland) account, such things all speak to the evolutionary leap our kind made when the African rainforest gave way to savanna and required us to descend from the trees and make our mark on the world upright. Genes “sculpt our minds,” notes the author, but they are not strictly deterministic; in the nature/nurture argument, the answer is yes. A combined nature/nurture part of that leap, he adds, were the complex social skills that we developed in order to live successfully in the shadow of the big predators that we’ve since been busy eradicating. We learned other skills, as well, including the control of fire in order to cook food, which eventually saw a transformation “from our large-jawed, small-brained ancestors to our small-jawed, large-brained selves.” One of the consequences of thinking more was to measure ourselves against others, leading to relativistic notions of success and well-being. “It doesn’t really matter how smart and attractive I am,” writes the author about various criteria in the mating game, “so long as I’m smarter and more attractive than the other available men." Self-confidence helps, too. The evolutionary science stuff seems a little undercooked at times, but the uses von Hippel makes of its resultant human nature yield an engaging book. In that regard, and in the pursuit of happiness, the author urges a program of engagement with community and others that reinforces social bonds, noting that “food, friends, and sexual relationships” are the three sine qua non of quotidian happiness; money isn’t a detriment, but neither is it the be-all and end-all that so many self-help gurus hold it to be.

Full of insight into human character, von Hippel’s book provides a stimulating program for measuring success without material yardsticks.

Pub Date: Nov. 13, 2018

ISBN: 978-0-06-274039-7

Page Count: 304

Publisher: Harper Wave

Review Posted Online: Sept. 1, 2018

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Sept. 15, 2018

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WHEN BREATH BECOMES AIR

A moving meditation on mortality by a gifted writer whose dual perspectives of physician and patient provide a singular...

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A neurosurgeon with a passion for literature tragically finds his perfect subject after his diagnosis of terminal lung cancer.

Writing isn’t brain surgery, but it’s rare when someone adept at the latter is also so accomplished at the former. Searching for meaning and purpose in his life, Kalanithi pursued a doctorate in literature and had felt certain that he wouldn’t enter the field of medicine, in which his father and other members of his family excelled. “But I couldn’t let go of the question,” he writes, after realizing that his goals “didn’t quite fit in an English department.” “Where did biology, morality, literature and philosophy intersect?” So he decided to set aside his doctoral dissertation and belatedly prepare for medical school, which “would allow me a chance to find answers that are not in books, to find a different sort of sublime, to forge relationships with the suffering, and to keep following the question of what makes human life meaningful, even in the face of death and decay.” The author’s empathy undoubtedly made him an exceptional doctor, and the precision of his prose—as well as the moral purpose underscoring it—suggests that he could have written a good book on any subject he chose. Part of what makes this book so essential is the fact that it was written under a death sentence following the diagnosis that upended his life, just as he was preparing to end his residency and attract offers at the top of his profession. Kalanithi learned he might have 10 years to live or perhaps five. Should he return to neurosurgery (he could and did), or should he write (he also did)? Should he and his wife have a baby? They did, eight months before he died, which was less than two years after the original diagnosis. “The fact of death is unsettling,” he understates. “Yet there is no other way to live.”

A moving meditation on mortality by a gifted writer whose dual perspectives of physician and patient provide a singular clarity.

Pub Date: Jan. 19, 2016

ISBN: 978-0-8129-8840-6

Page Count: 248

Publisher: Random House

Review Posted Online: Sept. 29, 2015

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Oct. 15, 2015

GOOD ECONOMICS FOR HARD TIMES

Occasionally wonky but overall a good case for how the dismal science can make the world less—well, dismal.

“Quality of life means more than just consumption”: Two MIT economists urge that a smarter, more politically aware economics be brought to bear on social issues.

It’s no secret, write Banerjee and Duflo (co-authors: Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way To Fight Global Poverty, 2011), that “we seem to have fallen on hard times.” Immigration, trade, inequality, and taxation problems present themselves daily, and they seem to be intractable. Economics can be put to use in figuring out these big-issue questions. Data can be adduced, for example, to answer the question of whether immigration tends to suppress wages. The answer: “There is no evidence low-skilled migration to rich countries drives wage and employment down for the natives.” In fact, it opens up opportunities for those natives by freeing them to look for better work. The problem becomes thornier when it comes to the matter of free trade; as the authors observe, “left-behind people live in left-behind places,” which explains why regional poverty descended on Appalachia when so many manufacturing jobs left for China in the age of globalism, leaving behind not just left-behind people but also people ripe for exploitation by nationalist politicians. The authors add, interestingly, that the same thing occurred in parts of Germany, Spain, and Norway that fell victim to the “China shock.” In what they call a “slightly technical aside,” they build a case for addressing trade issues not with trade wars but with consumption taxes: “It makes no sense to ask agricultural workers to lose their jobs just so steelworkers can keep theirs, which is what tariffs accomplish.” Policymakers might want to consider such counsel, especially when it is coupled with the observation that free trade benefits workers in poor countries but punishes workers in rich ones.

Occasionally wonky but overall a good case for how the dismal science can make the world less—well, dismal.

Pub Date: Nov. 12, 2019

ISBN: 978-1-61039-950-0

Page Count: 432

Publisher: PublicAffairs

Review Posted Online: Aug. 28, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Sept. 15, 2019

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