Richly detailed and well-written, this important new vantage point on Nuremberg will appeal strongly to history buffs and...



The untold story of the Soviet Union’s central role in the Nuremberg trials of Nazi leaders for war crimes.

In this masterly account based on thousands of documents in recently opened Soviet archives, history professor Hirsch describes how “Stalin’s Soviet Union fundamentally shaped the [Nuremberg trials] and was key to its success.” Her painstaking, highly readable history of the trials—in which prosecutors from the victorious Allies (the U.S., Britain, France, and the Soviets) cross-examined 24 “largely unrepentant” Nazi leaders, including Hermann Goering, Albert Speer, and Rudolf Hess—reveals participants’ sharply contrasting understandings of the meaning of justice. The Soviets, who lost 27 million civilians during the war, first suggested the trials. They had suffered the brunt of German war-making, assumed “the Nazi leaders were guilty and deserved to be hanged,” and hoped to establish a legal claim for reparations. The Western powers, which had favored “summary execution” of the defendants, wanted to show the world a fair trial. The tribunal was “filled with political intrigue, back-room negotiations, double-dealing, and compromises.” The four powers’ initial “tenuous” cooperation gave way to “bitterness and suspicion,” with the U.S. determined to “shut the Soviets out”—an early sign of the coming Cold War. Drawing nicely on the observations of such individuals as filmmaker Roman Karmen and political cartoonist Boris Efimov—both Soviets—Hirsch re-creates the trials vividly (“evidence by day and private parties at night”) and illuminates Soviet motives and actions. The vengeance-bent Moscow leadership worked hard to make Nuremberg resemble the infamous show trials of the 1930s. Ironically, themselves guilty of war crimes, they succeeded in creating the ideals of the Nuremberg principles (“crimes against humanity” and “genocide”) that have shaped subsequent movements for human rights.

Richly detailed and well-written, this important new vantage point on Nuremberg will appeal strongly to history buffs and specialists. (b/w illustrations, maps)

Pub Date: June 1, 2020

ISBN: 978-0-19-937793-0

Page Count: 432

Publisher: Oxford Univ.

Review Posted Online: March 15, 2020

Kirkus Reviews Issue: April 1, 2020

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The value of this book is the context it provides, in a style aimed at a concerned citizenry rather than fellow academics,...


A provocative analysis of the parallels between Donald Trump’s ascent and the fall of other democracies.

Following the last presidential election, Levitsky (Transforming Labor-Based Parties in Latin America, 2003, etc.) and Ziblatt (Conservative Parties and the Birth of Democracy, 2017, etc.), both professors of government at Harvard, wrote an op-ed column titled, “Is Donald Trump a Threat to Democracy?” The answer here is a resounding yes, though, as in that column, the authors underscore their belief that the crisis extends well beyond the power won by an outsider whom they consider a demagogue and a liar. “Donald Trump may have accelerated the process, but he didn’t cause it,” they write of the politics-as-warfare mentality. “The weakening of our democratic norms is rooted in extreme partisan polarization—one that extends beyond policy differences into an existential conflict over race and culture.” The authors fault the Republican establishment for failing to stand up to Trump, even if that meant electing his opponent, and they seem almost wistfully nostalgic for the days when power brokers in smoke-filled rooms kept candidacies restricted to a club whose members knew how to play by the rules. Those supporting the candidacy of Bernie Sanders might take as much issue with their prescriptions as Trump followers will. However, the comparisons they draw to how democratic populism paved the way toward tyranny in Peru, Venezuela, Chile, and elsewhere are chilling. Among the warning signs they highlight are the Republican Senate’s refusal to consider Barack Obama’s Supreme Court nominee as well as Trump’s demonization of political opponents, minorities, and the media. As disturbing as they find the dismantling of Democratic safeguards, Levitsky and Ziblatt suggest that “a broad opposition coalition would have important benefits,” though such a coalition would strike some as a move to the center, a return to politics as usual, and even a pragmatic betrayal of principles.

The value of this book is the context it provides, in a style aimed at a concerned citizenry rather than fellow academics, rather than in the consensus it is not likely to build.

Pub Date: Jan. 16, 2018

ISBN: 978-1-5247-6293-3

Page Count: 320

Publisher: Crown

Review Posted Online: Nov. 13, 2017

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Dec. 1, 2017

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For Howard Zinn, long-time civil rights and anti-war activist, history and ideology have a lot in common. Since he thinks that everything is in someone's interest, the historian—Zinn posits—has to figure out whose interests he or she is defining/defending/reconstructing (hence one of his previous books, The Politics of History). Zinn has no doubts about where he stands in this "people's history": "it is a history disrespectful of governments and respectful of people's movements of resistance." So what we get here, instead of the usual survey of wars, presidents, and institutions, is a survey of the usual rebellions, strikes, and protest movements. Zinn starts out by depicting the arrival of Columbus in North America from the standpoint of the Indians (which amounts to their standpoint as constructed from the observations of the Europeans); and, after easily establishing the cultural disharmony that ensued, he goes on to the importation of slaves into the colonies. Add the laborers and indentured servants that followed, plus women and later immigrants, and you have Zinn's amorphous constituency. To hear Zinn tell it, all anyone did in America at any time was to oppress or be oppressed; and so he obscures as much as his hated mainstream historical foes do—only in Zinn's case there is that absurd presumption that virtually everything that came to pass was the work of ruling-class planning: this amounts to one great indictment for conspiracy. Despite surface similarities, this is not a social history, since we get no sense of the fabric of life. Instead of negating the one-sided histories he detests, Zinn has merely reversed the image; the distortion remains.

Pub Date: Jan. 1, 1979

ISBN: 0061965588

Page Count: 772

Publisher: Harper & Row

Review Posted Online: May 26, 2012

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Jan. 1, 1979

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