A noted student of American Indian life profiles activists who sought to lead their people from subjugation to citizenship.
Take Sarah Winnemucca, for instance, a 19th-century Paiute teacher and writer who argued that the only way to end the suffering of Native peoples was to give them “a permanent home on [the Indians’] own native soil,” which would make of “the savage (as he is called today)…a thrifty and law-abiding member of the community.” Her protests against official corruption and indifference earned her notoriety among sympathetic whites, mostly on the East Coast, but she was attacked as a radical if not a puppet of the military, which was conspiring to wrest control of the Indian agency away from civilian authority. Hoxie’s (History and Law/Univ. of Illinois; Talking Back To Civilization: Indian Voices from the Progressive Era, 2001, etc.) narrative opens in the closing years of the Revolution, when Choctaw leader James McDonald, “the first Indian in the United States to be trained as a lawyer,” foresaw trouble for his people with the collapse of British rule; it closes with another lawyer, Vine Deloria, who made a careful distinction between American Indians and Indian Americans and argued against the social Darwinism hidden within social science: “By expecting that real Indians should conform to a specific list of backward traits and live as ‘folk people,’ anthropologists, and their missionary colleagues, convinced themselves that helping Indians required changing or even eradicating their cultures.” In between, Hoxie considers the work of the Salish scholar D’Arcy McNickle, the carefully litigious Mille Lacs Ojibwe band, the Seneca activist Alice Jemison and other activists who, working with, yes, anthropologists and missionaries and particularly lawyers, helped pave the way for a time in which “ ‘they’ were now ‘our’ neighbors, employers, customers, and fellow citizens.”
A capable, engaging work of history, important for students of official relations between the U.S. government and the Native peoples under its rule.