Students of world history, urban studies, economics, and similar fields will find Smith’s book to be a thought-provoking,...

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CITIES

THE FIRST 6,000 YEARS

An archaeologist examines the deep history of the world’s cities.

The late comedian George Carlin had a routine positing that we need houses to keep all our junk in and that a major torture of going on vacation is to decide what fraction of that junk to take with us. Smith (Anthropology/UCLA; A Prehistory of Ordinary People, 2010, etc.) offers reinforcement for that proposition: “there were only so many things that people could carry around at once,” she writes of early human life, “with possessions limited to lightweight, handheld items that were not very visible beyond a small group of people.” Enter architecture, which brought humans out of caves and into free-standing structures of various kinds—and then, 6,000 years ago, enter cities, an innovation that brought with them the bad (bureaucracy, crime, epidemic disease) as well as the good. In the author’s calculus, the good is weightier than the bad. In the life of villages, things are pretty dull, without much “ethnic or social diversity” and little need for economic ingenuity, with shamans or chiefs living the good life but everyone else toiling away. As Smith notes, archaeological lessons learned from the ancient past, applicable to the present as well, are that “there are always socioeconomic hierarchies.” In cities, the demands of social and economic life yield an “upward spiral” that affords diversity and rewards creativity. In its broadest outline, Smith’s argument isn’t new; Lewis Mumford was making similar observations half a century ago while, in recent years, Richard Florida has taken up the cause of cities as creative engines. Still, her points are well-taken: Cities are “now so widespread that we have a hard time ‘unseeing’ them from the landscape,” and increasingly they have become conurbations, with hundreds of cities, especially in Asia, having attained populations of more than 1 million people and vast metropolitan belts running down river valleys and coastlines.

Students of world history, urban studies, economics, and similar fields will find Smith’s book to be a thought-provoking, useful survey.

Pub Date: April 16, 2019

ISBN: 978-0-7352-2367-7

Page Count: 304

Publisher: Viking

Review Posted Online: Feb. 4, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Feb. 15, 2019

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Not an easy read but an essential one.

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HOW TO BE AN ANTIRACIST

Title notwithstanding, this latest from the National Book Award–winning author is no guidebook to getting woke.

In fact, the word “woke” appears nowhere within its pages. Rather, it is a combination memoir and extension of Atlantic columnist Kendi’s towering Stamped From the Beginning (2016) that leads readers through a taxonomy of racist thought to anti-racist action. Never wavering from the thesis introduced in his previous book, that “racism is a powerful collection of racist policies that lead to racial inequity and are substantiated by racist ideas,” the author posits a seemingly simple binary: “Antiracism is a powerful collection of antiracist policies that lead to racial equity and are substantiated by antiracist ideas.” The author, founding director of American University’s Antiracist Research and Policy Center, chronicles how he grew from a childhood steeped in black liberation Christianity to his doctoral studies, identifying and dispelling the layers of racist thought under which he had operated. “Internalized racism,” he writes, “is the real Black on Black Crime.” Kendi methodically examines racism through numerous lenses: power, biology, ethnicity, body, culture, and so forth, all the way to the intersectional constructs of gender racism and queer racism (the only section of the book that feels rushed). Each chapter examines one facet of racism, the authorial camera alternately zooming in on an episode from Kendi’s life that exemplifies it—e.g., as a teen, he wore light-colored contact lenses, wanting “to be Black but…not…to look Black”—and then panning to the history that informs it (the antebellum hierarchy that valued light skin over dark). The author then reframes those received ideas with inexorable logic: “Either racist policy or Black inferiority explains why White people are wealthier, healthier, and more powerful than Black people today.” If Kendi is justifiably hard on America, he’s just as hard on himself. When he began college, “anti-Black racist ideas covered my freshman eyes like my orange contacts.” This unsparing honesty helps readers, both white and people of color, navigate this difficult intellectual territory.

Not an easy read but an essential one.

Pub Date: Aug. 13, 2019

ISBN: 978-0-525-50928-8

Page Count: 320

Publisher: One World/Random House

Review Posted Online: April 28, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: May 15, 2019

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A clear and candid contribution to an essential conversation.

SO YOU WANT TO TALK ABOUT RACE

Straight talk to blacks and whites about the realities of racism.

In her feisty debut book, Oluo, essayist, blogger, and editor at large at the Establishment magazine, writes from the perspective of a black, queer, middle-class, college-educated woman living in a “white supremacist country.” The daughter of a white single mother, brought up in largely white Seattle, she sees race as “one of the most defining forces” in her life. Throughout the book, Oluo responds to questions that she has often been asked, and others that she wishes were asked, about racism “in our workplace, our government, our homes, and ourselves.” “Is it really about race?” she is asked by whites who insist that class is a greater source of oppression. “Is police brutality really about race?” “What is cultural appropriation?” and “What is the model minority myth?” Her sharp, no-nonsense answers include talking points for both blacks and whites. She explains, for example, “when somebody asks you to ‘check your privilege’ they are asking you to pause and consider how the advantages you’ve had in life are contributing to your opinions and actions, and how the lack of disadvantages in certain areas is keeping you from fully understanding the struggles others are facing.” She unpacks the complicated term “intersectionality”: the idea that social justice must consider “a myriad of identities—our gender, class, race, sexuality, and so much more—that inform our experiences in life.” She asks whites to realize that when people of color talk about systemic racism, “they are opening up all of that pain and fear and anger to you” and are asking that they be heard. After devoting most of the book to talking, Oluo finishes with a chapter on action and its urgency. Action includes pressing for reform in schools, unions, and local governments; boycotting businesses that exploit people of color; contributing money to social justice organizations; and, most of all, voting for candidates who make “diversity, inclusion and racial justice a priority.”

A clear and candid contribution to an essential conversation.

Pub Date: Jan. 16, 2018

ISBN: 978-1-58005-677-9

Page Count: 256

Publisher: Seal Press

Review Posted Online: Oct. 9, 2017

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Nov. 1, 2017

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