WILDERNESS AT DAWN

THE SETTLING OF THE NORTH AMERICAN CONTINENT

A colorful portrait that boldly highlights the cruelty, sharp practices, disease, madness, and brutality displayed—or brought about—by the British, French, Spanish, and Dutch in their subjugation of Native Americans and enslavement of Africans. In the wake of the 500th anniversary of Columbus's ``discovery'' of the New World, few historians are resisting the urge to attack the European exploitation of North America. Morgan (An Uncertain Hour, 1989, etc.) is no exception: For him, ``grand larceny'' might be more appropriate than ``settling'' to describe the European seizure of the continent. He emphasizes, for instance, French Jesuits' disruption of Indian culture rather than their zeal or physical courage. Morgan is short on analysis here, however, offering no real understanding of how the major American cities blossomed, or why North America, with all its problems, continued to attract settlers. He uses a variety of contemporary diaries, letters, and other documents to flesh out his story, which ranges from the Stone Age crossing of the Bering Land Bridge to the early 19th century. Morgan aims to write ``the story of mail carriers, sodbusters, circuit-riding judges, and Indian agents, of the people too busy occupying the land to make a claim on history.'' Although he veers a bit from his view from history's bottom rail (La Salle, the Virginian aristocrat William Byrd II, and Pilgrim governor William Bradford all receive excellent coverage), the author relates many an offbeat, sometimes jaunty, tale of ordinary people- -including Edward Marshall, whose marathon 60-mile walk in a day and a half helped William Penn's descendants swindle choice Pennsylvania land from the Indians; Eliza Lucas, who transformed the Carolinas' economy by introducing indigo; and Popä, the outraged shaman who masterminded the 1680 Pueblo revolt—the only Indian rebellion that successfully expelled a colonial power. Not strong on the reasons for European settlement, but a vivid panorama that makes one look forward to Morgan's projected next volume in this saga. (Four maps)

Pub Date: May 1, 1993

ISBN: 0-671-69088-4

Page Count: 560

Publisher: Simon & Schuster

Review Posted Online: May 20, 2010

Kirkus Reviews Issue: March 1, 1993

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A PEOPLE'S HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES

For Howard Zinn, long-time civil rights and anti-war activist, history and ideology have a lot in common. Since he thinks that everything is in someone's interest, the historian—Zinn posits—has to figure out whose interests he or she is defining/defending/reconstructing (hence one of his previous books, The Politics of History). Zinn has no doubts about where he stands in this "people's history": "it is a history disrespectful of governments and respectful of people's movements of resistance." So what we get here, instead of the usual survey of wars, presidents, and institutions, is a survey of the usual rebellions, strikes, and protest movements. Zinn starts out by depicting the arrival of Columbus in North America from the standpoint of the Indians (which amounts to their standpoint as constructed from the observations of the Europeans); and, after easily establishing the cultural disharmony that ensued, he goes on to the importation of slaves into the colonies. Add the laborers and indentured servants that followed, plus women and later immigrants, and you have Zinn's amorphous constituency. To hear Zinn tell it, all anyone did in America at any time was to oppress or be oppressed; and so he obscures as much as his hated mainstream historical foes do—only in Zinn's case there is that absurd presumption that virtually everything that came to pass was the work of ruling-class planning: this amounts to one great indictment for conspiracy. Despite surface similarities, this is not a social history, since we get no sense of the fabric of life. Instead of negating the one-sided histories he detests, Zinn has merely reversed the image; the distortion remains.

Pub Date: Jan. 1, 1979

ISBN: 0061965588

Page Count: 772

Publisher: Harper & Row

Review Posted Online: May 26, 2012

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Jan. 1, 1979

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Buffs of the Old West will enjoy Clavin’s careful research and vivid writing.

TOMBSTONE

THE EARP BROTHERS, DOC HOLLIDAY, AND THE VENDETTA RIDE FROM HELL

Rootin’-tootin’ history of the dry-gulchers, horn-swogglers, and outright killers who populated the Wild West’s wildest city in the late 19th century.

The stories of Wyatt Earp and company, the shootout at the O.K. Corral, and Geronimo and the Apache Wars are all well known. Clavin, who has written books on Dodge City and Wild Bill Hickok, delivers a solid narrative that usefully links significant events—making allies of white enemies, for instance, in facing down the Apache threat, rustling from Mexico, and other ethnically charged circumstances. The author is a touch revisionist, in the modern fashion, in noting that the Earps and Clantons weren’t as bloodthirsty as popular culture has made them out to be. For example, Wyatt and Bat Masterson “took the ‘peace’ in peace officer literally and knew that the way to tame the notorious town was not to outkill the bad guys but to intimidate them, sometimes with the help of a gun barrel to the skull.” Indeed, while some of the Clantons and some of the Earps died violently, most—Wyatt, Bat, Doc Holliday—died of cancer and other ailments, if only a few of old age. Clavin complicates the story by reminding readers that the Earps weren’t really the law in Tombstone and sometimes fell on the other side of the line and that the ordinary citizens of Tombstone and other famed Western venues valued order and peace and weren’t particularly keen on gunfighters and their mischief. Still, updating the old notion that the Earp myth is the American Iliad, the author is at his best when he delineates those fraught spasms of violence. “It is never a good sign for law-abiding citizens,” he writes at one high point, “to see Johnny Ringo rush into town, both him and his horse all in a lather.” Indeed not, even if Ringo wound up killing himself and law-abiding Tombstone faded into obscurity when the silver played out.

Buffs of the Old West will enjoy Clavin’s careful research and vivid writing.

Pub Date: April 21, 2020

ISBN: 978-1-250-21458-4

Page Count: 400

Publisher: St. Martin's

Review Posted Online: Jan. 20, 2020

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Feb. 15, 2020

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